The Bush- Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) is a standardised, quantifiable examination of catatonia designed to screen and diagnose. Page 1. Page 2. The aim of the present study was to examine the suitability and accuracy of using the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) in chronic schizophrenia.

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We suspect catatonia is a common cause of unexplained deterioration in adolescents and young adults with DS.

This is highly compatible with a dysregulated motor system in catatoniaparticularly affecting premotor areas. Therefore, it is not surprising that there are many proposed underlying mechanisms of catatonia and that controversy persists about the etiology of specific cases. The complete mechanisms are still partly unknown. With each recurrent episode, the duration of catatonia increased, requiring an increased dosage of benzodiazepine.

We describe here 2 adolescent females, both with Down syndrome, who presented with catatonia not accompanied by significant affective or psychotic symptoms or with a general medical condition.

Failure to treat the catatonia before institution of antipsychotic medication may increase the risk of inducing neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Effective treatment is relatively easy and can greatly reduce organ failure associated with prolonged psychomotor symptoms.

Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS.

In contrast, manic patients mainly displayed catatonic excitement, whereas, depressed patients were characterized by catatonic inhibition in terms of stupor, mutism, and rigidity Eight subjects performed a one-axis tracking task with six levels of difficulty and rated these tasks on several workload dimensions. Catatonia in a psychiatric intensive care facility: In addition, we have reviewed the diagnostic challenges, neurobiology, possible causes, differential diagnosis and treatment options of catatoniafocusing on the treatment with ECT and the importance of fatatonia and multidisciplinary collaboration.

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Frontiers | Prevalence of the Catatonic Syndrome in an Acute Inpatient Sample | Psychiatry

Fatatonia of clear and unambiguous descriptions of 28 terms used to define or describe catatonia:. Increased serum anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody immunofluorescence in psychiatric patients with past catatonia.

The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger’s Disorder, and…. In the current classification system used in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, catatonia is described in association with schizophrenia, as a specifier of affective disorders or secondary to general medical conditions.

To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder.

Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS) – PsychTools

In contrast to Xatatonia, Kraepelin and others Jaspers, Kleist, and Schneider recognized the prevalence of motor symptoms in diverse psychiatric disorders but concluded that the unique pattern and persistence of certain psychomotor phenomena defined a “catatonic” subtype of schizophrenia, based on intensive long-term studies. Hyponatremia-Inducing Psychosis and Subsequent Catatonia.

Rating scale and standardized ratong. Presentation and frequency of catatonia in new admission to two acute psychiatric admission units in India and Wales.

Prompt identification and treatment can produce a robust improvement in most cases. Periodic catatonia has long been a buush diagnosis and there are no absolute guidelines for treatment when precipitating factors are also unclear.

Although psychomotor phenomena are an intrinsic feature of acute and especially chronic schizophrenia, they are insufficiently recognized in practice and research but may have significant implications for treatment outcome and neurobiological studies.

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Neuropsychiatric patients with past catatonia showed greater anti-NMDAR antibody response than the healthy controls. At this point of time, the pathobiology of catatonia is unknown; the major reason for considering catatonia as a separate diagnostic entity would be to increase recognition of this eminently treatable neuropsychiatric syndrome.


Scales should be developed for body regions where no scales are available, such as lower limbs and trunk. Some patients would still score 3 to 12 points even when clinical improvement has occurred. Not only patients with schizophrenia, but also patients with general medical disease, mood disorder, and substance-related disorder exhibit catatonia.

J Clin Frwncis This condition manifests with significant behavioral changes from mildly decreased speech output to complete mutism that interfere with the ability to communicate. We suggest that the development and widespread adoption of a new clinically useful rating scale is critical for accelerating basic and clinical research in MD.

Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS)

Catatonia as a putative nosological entity: An unifying pathogenesis of catatonia that explains all motor, vegetative, and behavioral symptoms remains elusive. A hyperthyroid symptom scale HSS was designed and administered to ten subjects with untreated Graves’ disease.

The treatment response had been assessed by two psychiatrists. In these studies, different criteria to diagnose catatonia were used, which renders a comparison between different studies on the prevalence of catatonia more difficult.

The results indicated that improvement can be made in the precision of teacher ratings that may be reflected in improved reliability and validity.